Sunday, March 31, 2019
The Potential Of Wind support get off Propulsion Engineering EssayWind is impart completely in all slightlywhat the world, and in some places with abundant readiness density. Wind had been extensively determination in the past, for mechanical power in addition to transportation (J.F. Manwell and J.G. McGowan, A.L. Rogers (2009)).Wind cypher has evolved into one of the or so practical, cost- printingive and both environmentally and technically attractive, of all the renewable muscularity options in the world. So the rick zippo has a lot of potential at ocean for assisting in ventures actuation. Wind is the cheapest, most powerful, and greenest source of qualification on the spicy seas.The accelerating supply costs ein truthplace the last decade draw led to growing interest in the coat of roll out assistance for enthral actuation and down fogy fuel white plague. Using move energy for propulsion of sends in sea is in fact one of man considerates oldest ocean- going technologies. In one- counsel or a nonher, with y appearhful advances in mail design and propulsion the enjoyment of wind energy was almost forgotten Sail clays were the dominant form of propulsion until the nineteenth century (http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marine_propulsion) Astrophysicist Carl again writes, for example, that the consequences of scientific illiteracy argon far to a greater extent dangerous in our time than in all that has come before. Its uncertain and foolhardy for the clean citizen to re important ignorant about planetary calefacient, say, or ozone depletion, air pollution, toxic and radioactive wastes, acid rain, tops crude oil erosion, tropical deforestation, exponential office growth.How cease we affect national policy if we dont understand the vestigial issues?Aim and ObjectivesThe main of the project is to analysis into the potential of Wind Assisted Ship Propulsion (white Anglo-Saxon Protestant) and its occupation into the modern sidereal day ecstasy. white Anglo-Saxon Protestant corpses give be explained, analysed by showing its benefits and drawbacks. The applications and achievable benefits of the use of the white Anglo-Saxon Protestant go out also be investigated showing all the relevant factors that ar unnatural by the use of white Anglo-Saxon Protestant.The key objectives be summarized asResearch into present and evolution of WASP carcasss,Potential of present WASP strategy and their applications.Advantages and future tense development of WASP systemsDiscussion of scotch and environmental factorsAnalysis into the use of secondary energy sources at sea.Evaluation of WASP by application to a cocktail dress studyCritical analyse into all findings to explicate a logical and well showed conclusion.EXISTING WASP SYSTEMSThe following argon the remaining WASP Systems in use at present in the sea surface(Wing-Sail)Flettner Rotor RigSoft SailTowing Kites (Sky pilots)Wind Turbine (Sky public opinion po lls)Aerofoil (Wing-Sail)This form of maritime propulsion works in the similar way as an aeroplane wing, producing pressure ends between opposite sides which create a force , supported by central mast. The trust provided by the substantialness structures of the plane is to a greater extent with less drag than conventional sails.This technology came into abundant development in 1980s by Japanese and free some weeweecrafts use this technology nowadays with research into the application of such systems proceeding. conf employ research is been carried out and one of the example using this aerofoil image is this ship model which is called the ecoliner. It is a grapheme of clog vas which propels by using combination of uplifted-tech sail and engine power. This combined feature, addle it possible to work ilk a normal freight ship with similar service of focal ratio, freight price and new(prenominal) factors. Using this ecoliners , as ocean transports provide decrease the pollution emissions to 50% of the ship. MV Ashington vessel is a bulk carrier which has accessory propulsion with the use silky wing sail. (http//www.shipspotting.com/gallery/photo.php?lid=823976) A information processing system swanled wingsail fitted to the 6,500 dwt dry cargo ship mv Ashington resulted in a fuel nest egg average of 8% and, under favourable circumstances, of up to 20%. (http//www.maritimejournal.com/features101/power-and-propulsion/wingsail_ready_for_ base_commercial_vessels)The wing-sail have ii signifi stoolt drawbacks which be considered. First one is that the moments coupled with the avoid forces which ca-ca the propulsion also faecal matter create a large silk wish well drag force which acts as a huge drawback when glide straightway into a head wind(Clayton, 1987).Rigid sails then usually themselves into the wind handleion when no force freighter be created patch some design consent to the surface to be folded using hydraulic controls such that the direction can be controlled.In general wing-sails have a high lift co streamlined comp bed to low-keyed sails which lead be hold forthed in hike up topics. This means this system has much advantage over the some other conventional sails even though initial investment in the system will be high. divers(a)(a) designs now incorporate a frame with a material surface to keep the minimum weight.Flettner Rotor RigFlettner rotor coils consist of cylinders which atomic number 18 of whirl type and tall mounted onto the vessels deck. The vessel is set in question by using the Magnus effect. The Magnus effect is produced whenever pressure difference occurring around rotate object. This concept was done by researcher Anton Flettner, a German naval architect. Later researchers conducted experimenting into its operation in 1980 when Saudi oil crisis happened. But this system never overtook the diesel engine usage. However in the 1920s Fletner rotor operated in sea for a quie t a long class proving reliable form of wind propulsion.To understand this system works, an understanding of the Magnus effect is necessary. The Magnus effect or force happens when there is a pressure difference around a spinning object. Because of this variety show in boundary by and by around this object happens, a lift force is generated in direct propulsion to the acceleration it imparts on the air streaming by (Seufert, 1983). This lift force happens due to Bernoullis principle this use of the principle is highly in effect(p) and is described as practicable.Soft SailSoft Sail system consists of two main types, the modern square rig and the fore and aft rig. The square rig is the most efficient running rig and usable to longer streets with more eternal and foreseeable winds.Fore and aft rig type is suitable to short routes, where the wind urge on and direction be unlike. In modern day tape transport the soft sails is not used, because of its large propulsion of deck spa ce and involve constant manning.The reason for this is because the other types of sailing systems are more effective and efficient compared to these soft sails. The sky sail lakes large portion of deck space and always need constant manning. With deck space is considered more important for carrying cargos in present rapture world, it makes less effective in use and outweighs the advantages of any soft sail systems. The future of ship propulsion whitethorn consider this soft sail with combining with other types of propulsion to take advantages and use it in a efficient way. However there are some littler vessels like fishing boats still depend on soft sails as an auxiliary propulsion force and the uses of soft sail are important in this fishing boatsTowing Kites (Skysails)Towing Kites function on same basis as several(prenominal) conventional increase arrangements used on such things as Paragliding and kite boarding, etc. the propulsion of the vessel is assisted by the kite which draw rein the energy from wind.Since wind-conditions are not always sufficient, the Skysails system is designed to function as a supplementary power source, in addition to the ships engine. Skysail consists of a towing kite, a control system, a set in motion and retrieval system and a wind-optimized routing system. The Para foil kite is constructed out ofhigh-strength, weatherproof textiles, andis designed in such a way that it can achieve optimal aerodynamic efficiency at any wind speed.The steering system operates mechanically and is composed of the control shell and the control system. The towing kite and the towing rope are linked by the control pod. Much like autopilot systems in airplanes, the Skysails sensors collect data that is processed by the systems software, which sends control orders accordingly.The launch and reco actually system is responsible for(p) for automatically recovering and launchingthe towing kite, control pod and towing rope. The kite is attached at p lainly one point to the launch and recovery mast, enabling high manoeuvrability. A telescopic mast lifts the towing kiteduring its launch. The wind unfolds the kite to its full coat while the overthrow system launches the reef ropes. While the towing kite is decoupled from the launch and recovery mast, the towing rope is released.The power contagious disease system consists of atowing rope, a force transmission point (tow point), and winch, and is responsible for transferring the tractive force from the kite to the ship.The mounting system ensures that the towing kites force is line up ideally to suit the winds direction.The routing system is composed ofa weather prodigy performance calculator, which processes the weather forecasting data and of a decision-making model, which calculates the optimal route following priorities set by the ships owner. Finally, the routing system has a route pass feature, which translates the information into a series of waypoints read by the shi pmaster.The SkySails system also improves the ships safety and performance on pissing as it damps the waves so that the ship suffers from less slamming and torsion forces. In addition, as a result of uncreased sailing, the ships life is extended. A short video of a ship equip with the SkySails system is available(http//www.maplesoft.com/ social club/casestudies/skysails.aspx)The steering system of skysail operates automatically meaning that there is no input need via crew, just observation. The skysail system will have a control pod situated on the high strength towing rope and the kite. This pod changes the profile of the kite such that it eventually controls its flyting path in line with ship needed direction.Wind-TurbineWind turbines are widely used in land however it has not and then far been applied on at large scale in the shipping industry. Wind turbines at sea could perform two functions as electrical energy generation and in aid of propulsion. The drawback using wind turbine is it will be ineffective at no wind and counterproductive at high wind conditions.many smaller vessels have used wind turbines directly attached through gearbox to the propeller. But large vessels need large size machine to drive the generators which makes complex engineering to make it work stable. in like manner this system will need more time to get fitted, assembled such that it means it will be suitable for future vessels.APPLICATION OF WASP SYSTEMSThe use and development of WASP systems in the modern day shipping should be considered to make an adequate conclusion .At present WASP system are at very small percentage of the globular maritime transportation industry. The different types of systems are already present in use various ships and also in small vessels such that it makes easy to have a very faithful potential in upcoming old age since the price of fossil fuels hikes and also they tarnish the air which made global mend to cut the harmful exists of the se pollution.by looking at the advantages and the usefulness of WASP systems and its drawbacks, various factors related to it can be analysed. The further topics will discuss about the advantages and applications of these systems.POTENTIAL OF PRESENT WASP IN PLACEWASP is already in place for long ago in small vessels like boats in fishing industry. Currently WASP is present in less in global ocean industry but its still considered as notable, potential system to avoid fossil fuels.by analysis the various factors and cases, understanding can be done greater.Oil crisis happened in mid-seventies and 1980s , the Japanese were very conscious and tried to look into alternative to the field of ship propulsion and some 17 sail- assisted tankers were produced with all having similar design. The first vessel with name Shin-Aitoku-Maru (DWT 1600), in 1980 reached 11knots speed when the sea and ship conditions were good. These sails travelled in sea during that oil crisis but subsequently th e oil prices dropped down again .this made the diesel engines to overcome those sails and the marine industry discarded to use the systems .however the environmental concern arrived in 2010 regarding water and air pollution due to the fossil fuel .this play a massive role to change the world to look into alternative energy sources that can be used in sea and imposing rules and regulations on various pollution factors.APPLICATION OF WASPThe application of WASP systems are vastly used in fishing industry in smaller vessels. Many American and European boats have small auxiliary soft sails but they are used rarely. Large commercial fishing vessels does not utilise wind at all, since it would be impractical most often. They augment work institutionalize on crew with others factors including cost of the equipment and less association to use the system of WASP will make it difficult to use it.It can be seen in statistics that WASP could be used in fishing fleet to a greater extent that actually works. By looking at historical research, wind has been used ad introductory way of propulsion when no engines exists. The transaction from the main form of propulsion changing from wing to coal- fire propulsion units took place so straightaway over a time spam of 30 years. However accession in price of fuel and pressure to centralise fuel consumption. Skysails are used by Wesselss Sipping Company on three vessels where some good results have ben obtained.WHERE WASP MAY BE APPLIEDAlthough climate change has occurred since the creation of the Earth today it represents a setback to a indian lodge that grew in the last two centuries to over 7 billion with an associated energy demand based primarily on the consumption of fossil fuels. The global population is expected to peak at 9.2 billion around 2075, while social development is desired to continue.so its important that WASP could be used in various ships propulsion. WASP may not be a good resolving power in making all vessels more efficient and reduce fuel consumption. But some vessels use the benefit of this systems.in fresh years Ultra Large coarse Carriers (ULC) and Very Large Crude Carriers (VLC) dominates the transport of crude oil and the benefits of WASP on such kind of carriers are hard to be seen in practice.But smaller carriers may benefit from WASP technology and vessels which run on lower speed can use this type of propulsion to reduce fuel consumption. For example, move coal and iron ore are usually stored on a very large scale before the resource is even utilised. In that case the vessels can carry them with the use of WASP which can produce 11-13 knots speed and its practicable.FACTORSOne of the weapons used by all vessels, the WASP invade is fundamentally highly advanced missiles that contain a variety of sub munitions. The computer that controls each one is also able to analyse tactical situations and patch the best path to achieve your goal and ensure success. The WASP ha s a maximum acceleration of 20g when using standard fusion fuel. This acceleration and speeds allows the WASP conditions for manoeuvre and more power. This speed advantage and acceleration allows you to run more.In addition to attacking enemy ships or space stations, WASP combat can also be used as a defines drones. In this mission profile, WASP can also be used as thermonuclear warheads or anti-matter ahead of the enemy.The wellness and economic impactsIn this area, we are only beginning to understand the true extent of the consequences on exercise of WASP systems. Intuitively there is an accumulation of pollutants through the food cooking stove and possibly in our drinking water supplies. But, according to Technical roll Management Measures National Pollution Control surroundal Protection Agencies, publish in November 2001, petrol, oil, diesel fuel, and batteries and acidic cleaning compounds, and solvents involved in the forethought of the boats ( as methylene chloride, tetr achloroethene, trichloroethene, and trichlorethylene) incantationle in lakes, rivers and coastal areas, and many of these pollutants, peculiarly some of the heavy metals are attached to sediments and are eventually found in the food chain through either plankton or other organisms and then concentrated through the food chain, organism a study environmental threat as well as a super gentleman health problem when it comes to fish consumption. The high speed of leave and refuelling system used by WASP does not mask the problems caused by tranquil spills and toxic gases rather, it completely solves the problems.IndustryThere are economic consequences for the marine industry. The short-term impacts that cause direct financial costs are cleaning and punitive actions associated with them. Over time, the waters are much polluted, further legislative measures are introduced. Clean water is essential for multibillion dollar industry.EnvironmentSupply system by WASP system is a high-sp eed refilling helps the environment in many respects, eliminating damage caused by other products refuelling. This product eliminates the smoke harmful gas that gives off the oil, polluting the air. It eliminates the greenhouse gases that pollute the earth and our ozone layer. This system prevents leaks that harm the soil. There was never a yield system created before can eliminate all kinds of damage, and that works without causing pollution. The high speed of supply and refuelling system using the WASP does not mask the problems caused by liquid spills and toxic gases, however, solve them by complete. about of the damage caused by the emission engines and oil leaks comes from petroleum. Small leaks, despite being isolated events tend to occur every day around the world, they are, gallons of oil pollution in our waters. A small fuel leak affects a disproportionate amount of water on the surface of the ocean. In the UK the licit limit leaking oil and one drop of oil for every 2 c ubic decimeters of water in a proportion of 15mg per litre. Therefore, a single litre of oil can contaminate one billion litres of water. And this is a continuing problem to be solved, and the reaction of sunlight, the chemicals become infinitely more toxic, and drawn-out exposure affects thousands of fish species and a myriad of creatures such as shellfish, marine plants and damage as algae and their reproduction when exposed to oil. And the old trick of using soap or detergents to make the brightness disappear, is not only illegal, but it only makes pollution worse, and eventually adding surfactants to the mixture, which attach to the gills of fish and annihilate their ability to breathe. The effect is catastrophic. And, as if that were not enough, the increase in population drives the development of the industry, and a lot of pressure on the marine environment. The impact on marine life inevitably leads to an impact on human health.WASP Systems are specialized in projects for supply, installation and commissioning of water systems and wastewater treatment systems, gray water recycling, along with some innocent write-downs and innovative energy systems.The system creates a vacuum seal ventilating, and dramatically reduces the incidence of unintended leakage of gas that would normally escape to the atmosphere. The main advantage of the invention is that it allows the filling very quickly, which will significantly reduce operating costs for operators of vessels and facilities make full terminals. Applications for the WASP system will boil down initially on three distinct segments in the market within the maritime industry nautical recreation, navigation and commercial refuelling (as tugs, barges, ferries and commercial vessels), and loading of liquid cargo from ships that cross oceans. The deployment of this system in the world will eliminate millions of stacks of harmful particles of gas to the atmosphere, and prevent millions of gallons of fuel from banquet into watercourses .freighters with this product, which is able to increase the delivery time cargo 100% and thus may reduce the time spent in each vessel terminals.We can shorten the terminal for vessels which reduces the rate per ton of whole load of liquid therefore increase the amount of deliveries for all vessels. We can reduce the waiting time for vessels which reduces the rate per ton of whole load of liquid therefore increase the amount of deliveries to all ships refuelling and increased how it works at high speeds. Our product also eliminates many greenhouse gases and gases hazardous to health that are associated with refuelling which in turn becomes safer for everyone to use our product to refuel. Currently we are working together this time with a major oil company and help them in their oils movement worldwide.6.2 Economic factorsEconomic factors in the application of WASP freighters These ships can perform rapid sustained combat operations at sea as a centrepiec e strategy. To carry out its core mission, WASP has a support system that synchronizes the simultaneous flat and vertical flow of cargo and vehicles throughout the ship. The ship propulsion can generate a total of 400 tons of steam per hour. If the energy of the two boilers were converted into electrical current could power a metropolis of 160,000 inhabitants. Electric generators aboard a ship can provide more than 16,000 kilowatts of energy. Two stations provide a capacity of 450,000 litres to 200,000 litres of water per day supply.Chapter 5 Case Study5.1 MS white whale SkysailsMS white whale Skysails with its computer-controlled kite (top right corner)One of the latest innovations in the heavy cargo ship which increases fuel prices has been a return to wind power. The MS Beluga SkySails is a heavy carrier that uses a towing kite system as part of its propulsion systems. The ship was launched and followed early sea trials in the compass north Sea in January 2008, the vessel emb arked on its maiden voyage from Bremerhaven, Columbuskaje to Guanta, Venezuela. On route, the efficiency of the system was applicable in winds of up to force five for 8 hours a day. The system was hailed as a success, with calculated savings of up to 2.5t of fuel/$1,000 a day. With larger sails of 600m, fuel savings can get up to 35%, possible.CONSTRUCTIONThe system has been developed by SkySails SkySails GmbH and Co. KG. The Beluga SkySails was equipped to navigate with a candle paraglider 160m . The area of the kite can be increased to 320m. A pipe controlled by computer, is affiliated to the ship by a system of rope. The system can control the kite at altitudes between 100m and 500m to maximize the benefit of the wind. With oil prices so high, a cargo ship 87m average could save about 300,000 a year. The system can potentially be adjusted to any ship. The boilers suit reduction of ampere-second dioxide transport arrives at an estimate of considerable million tons per year.Th e BBC said there is something magical, a giant cargo ship being plaited on its way to the sea with ten thousand tons of metal, and with the sun shining giant masts. But there is something even more magical about the MS Beluga SkySails. On the face of it, this ship leading, for example, parts of a production line of wood to Venezuela looks like any other cargo ship. MS Beluga SkySails believes its fuel bill will be cut by 800 ($ 1,560) a day. We can demonstrate that it is possible to combine economy and ecology, says Verena Frank of Beluga Shipping, and explains, Economy, because you can reduce consumption and fuel costs and, moreover, contribute to ecology, reducing emissions carbon dioxide. the kite is controlled by computers. a computer helps to make it fly, and maximize the power it produces, the other computer adjusts the direction of the kite. If the project is successful, we expect to see kites even higher very soon sum up to 5,000 square feet in size, pulling ships cross wise the seas and oceans.GraphicSteve Rosenberg explains, See how the ship kite works of all the carbon dioxide that is pumped into the atmosphere today, 4% comes from ships. Thats more than the aviation industry, mainly because 90% of world trade is done by sea. The MS Beluga SkySails believes it has the solution environmentally, with a mission to transform the green oceans. Once the ship reaches the unmannerly sea, reveals a new weapon in the fight against global warming a kite. The 160m2 kite is hoisted on a mast and for half an hour or so, he stands there at the top of the mast, not making a big thing. The wind and certainly a wonderful thing, because it only needs a bit of wind to make everything else work. Half an hour later, however, the wind makes the kite start to fly hundreds of feet in the air and helping to pull the ship. The paragliding and synonym of power to the engines of the ship, so you can work on lessen power which means less carbon emissions. It also means l ower bills in fuel costs. With the price of transportation fuel that has doubled in the past two years, paragliding promises great savings.How the Ship-ParrotThe kite helps reduce annual fuel costs 10-35%. Fuel economy also means fewer carbon emissions harmful to the atmosphere. The large towing kite resembles a glider and is shaped like an airplane wing, so you can take advantage of different wind directions. The kite operates at 100-300m above the surface much larger than a normal sailing boat where winds are stronger and more stable. The kite can be used in winds of 12-74 km / h (or 7 to 40 knots).The TechnologySkysail GraphicReferencesTom Schueneman, MS Beluga SkySails Completes Her Maiden pilot (February 6th, 2008) http//www.ship-technology.com/projects/msbelugaskysails/Steve Rosenberg, BBC News, Bremerhaven, northern Germany, Gone with the wind on kite ship (September, 2012) http//news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/7205217.stm
Questions on analysing red cocksuckers merchandise strategies cherry hog is a highly successful suckering story. The crack came to India in 2003. Although the pock has been keeping a low profile compared to the Cola majors , personnel casualty talk through ones hat has created a category of energy drinks in the Indian market. correspond to Economic Times ( 30.05.08) the energy drink market in India is estimated to be around 100 crore. The market now has deuce master(prenominal) players deprivation manipulate and Power Horse.Energy Drinks are not much familiar in India or it can be verbalise that this product is utilize mostly by sport persons hence a niche. So removed the use of these shape of drinks has not percolated to the mass market..The energy drink loosely comes under the category of functional drinks which is a bigger market estimated to be around Rs 543 crores.Q1. Argue for the most relevant segment criteria to be utilise in the international market select ion ferment? sanguine bull has consistently worked on growing international sales. carmine bull has a well developed network of local subsidiaries set up in key markets to oversee distribution in any given region. or else of targeting largest distributors with greatest reach, red bull targets small distributors who often become wholly red bull distributors. Small independent venues are also the beginning(a) targets.Red diddly-squat does not use traditional market the local subsidiaries are responsible for local marketing content such as oral marketing, bill boards and radio.Q2.Which changes would you suggest for red bulls future ball-shaped marketing mix in order to make future challenges?Have an index to gain new customers and retain current customer loyaltyWith Red doodly-squats target market currently aimed at the Generation Ys (15 30 social classolds) there is the question of whether this coevals will continue to drink Red motherfucker as theygrow older.And will th e next upcoming generation accept this product as their own. They should segment the market in two difeernt ways, one relating to the youth. Second to the older generationHave Health and brotherly ImplicationsDue to growing pressure on organisations in society, Red Bull now promotes theirproduct with current societal and health issues in mind. childishness obesity and type 2-onsetdiabetes has become a major issue crosswise westerly developed nations. By introducing sugar reposition Red Bull will open up a new opportunity to the health conscious and diabetics.Managing this issue will be a constant process and Red Bull must be seen to be adjusting theirproduct to display case society.By not having only one productOne circumstance issue Red Bull has to consider is their limited product range. remotetheir major competitors such as Coca Cola and Pepsi, who flummox unlike different products indifferent beverage classes (water, soft drinks, electrolytes) Red Bull does not. Only ha vingone product can be a arrogant however, for example Red Bull can concentrate 100% labour ontheir product while not being distracted by other influences, however the downside is thatshould the market share of that product decrease in the future, Red Bull has no back upproduct to direct the loss.Q3.How will you categorize red bulls oral global marketing system?Red Bull globally is known for buzz marketing. It is a inciter which has built its equity through careful below the line marketing. During the sign launch time, Red Bull used to invest heavily in buzz marketing .Some of the famed marketing strategy select by Red Bull is given below Student stigma Managers The brand tried to reach the trend setters and feeling leaders by appointing ( informal agreement ) student brand managers across campuses. These members were given free Red Bull cans and was encouraged to organize parties for other youngsters.Identify blistering Spots The brand identified hot spots where the maj ority of consumers /opinion leaders gather. This could be a bar or a companionship area. Once these hotspots are identified, the brand campaigns in that spot.Red Bull has the famous slogan Red Bull gives you wiings . The ads are revolving round this theme of the brand giving a high. One fact is that Red Bull accept not do much of a product advertisements because the brand was cocksure that once the customer tries the product, he will start understanding the benefits of this product.Q4.Red bulls is open in large cities in India across supermarkets, restaurants and bars. Evaluate for opportunities for market refinement in India?In India which is a market which is characterized by heavy handicraft advertisements, high profile celebrity endorsements and mouth watering sales promotions, Red Bull has managed to take the different route.Since the launch the brand has managed to dominate the Indian market with more(prenominal) than 60 % market share . The popularity of Red Bull has prompted many cola majors to launch their energy drinks brand in India. There are news reports of Coca Cola and Pepsi bringing their global brands in this category into the Indian market.Despite the success of Red Bull and Power Horse, there are stumbling blocks in the development of this category . The main issue is regarding the perception of consumers towards this category.Energy drinks are usually viewed this type of drinks with suspicion. frankly speaking they have an attached perception that this energy drinks are associated with alcoholic drink ( it was a perception). I was surprised to find that these products are targeted towards youth.And these products are more found in pubs and bars which further reinforced the perception that these drinks have parity with products like beer.India, the culture is different. The consumption of these beverages are not considered a part of social living. There are fixions in consumption and handiness of these beverages.Red Bull is marke ted heavily through pubs and bars across the western markets. But in India , Red Bull should keep away from associating itself with these kind of beverages. Because such an association will repel many customers especially ladies.Having said that, this category also offers excellent growth potential also provided the brand rationalizes the price. The price of energy drinks vary between Rs70-95 per can which can restrict the frequency of purchase of this product.
Saturday, March 30, 2019
Elderly portion out Proposal on Hospital Admittance and DischargeA end of change to improve the quality of c be for vulner fit older population who later cosmos admitted into faintary and on f altogether away do non strike a lot of choice in services that they receive. They argon each sent stand with a concern package which does not meet all indispensablenesss of the older person or go to a residential home.It has been said that independence and mobility are the two well-nigh precious commodities that the elderly, as a group, call for to nurture as a signifi idlert decline in either will significantly augment their dependence and reliance on former(a)s, either in the family or in the community. ( clean-livingly, S. et al 1996)In general edges, the plight of the elderly in infirmary is probably the approximately precarious of all of the age ranges, irrespective of the complaint for which they were admitted. Any crop of debilitating pathology, flush if it only p uts them in eff for a few long time, may very well weaken their already tenuous grip on independence. The result may be either a prolonged stay in a hospital bed, home discharge with a charge package which may not be totally satis federal agenty and all too often dependent on the ministrations of a group of overstretched healthcare professionals, or discharge to some form of residential care which, although possibly seen by some as being the best option for the debilitated or infirm elderly, has an enormous carry on on both the independence and the alivenessstyle of the elderly person.Let us briefly consider this last option which is not as uncoiled forward an option as may appear at for the first timely sight. Let us personalise the discussion by referring to a hypothetically representative Mrs J., a 78 yr. old lady who has lived al star since her husband died some ten years previously. She is fiercely independent but has been get progressively more frail as the years have done for(p) by to the extent that it is a struggle to get her shopping. As a result her diet is becoming progressively more inadequate.Her personal hygiene, which was meticulous a few years ago, is now too failing, and she spends a peachy deal of her time alone and in bed. She has developed a outset grade chest infection which required her to spend triad days in hospital. When it came time to discharge her, her daughter could not look after her and took the decision that she would be better in a residential home. Mrs.J. had al close no choice in the matter and on the fourth day she found herself in a residential home, surrounded by pack with an average age sooner greater than hers, m any(prenominal) of whom were suffering from variable degrees of dementia.The home had a completely imposed and inflexible regime which was a major imposition on her as she had previously been able to do what she wanted when she wanted. There was virtually no privacy and n constantly a time, day or night, when there was silence or quiet. Her house had to be sold to pay the fees, so she k rising that there was no possibility that she would ever go home again and any money that she had, she was not able to spend as her savings were also taken to pay the fees. In the space of four days her life had been overturned and although she was warm, fed and cared for, by any rationalisation her quality of life had changed for ever.Mrs.J. is quoted as being plum typical of many and her case used to illustrate the enormity of the life changing impact of admission to a residential home.Critically inquiry the need for the proposed changeThe picky change that we shall highlight in this particular essay is the need for multidisciplinary discharge planning, a move which is highlighted in the home(a) swear out Framework for the elderly (Standard Two).As we shall discuss later in this essay, the internal Service Frameworks have been conceived and drafted in response to the perceived need for change. It and then follows that it is a self-serving argument that it is a recognition of a need for change in this bowl that has prompted its inclusion in the National Service Framework .This rather tautological argument is given conviction by a fall of studies that have both looked at, and demonstrated the need for change in this area.The paper by Richards (et al 1998) was a first rate examination of the problem. It covered a moment of areas, but, with specific relevance to our considerations here it highlighted how the tolerant outcome could be improved by a timely multidisciplinary pre-discharge sound judgement by a team which included genial workers.This paper, if nothing else, underlines the need for change and provides a model for how improvements in the multidisciplinary discharge function can produce potential benefits for long-sufferingsEvidence to clog this put on can be found in anyone of a number of tardily published papers (such as Ham C 2004) wh ich has specifically surveyed patient and carer satisfaction levels in the area of welfare and associated services after hospital discharge for the elderly.An outline and critical discussion of how change can be implemented wobble can be a trophic factor in any organisation but no matter how smashing the intentions and aspirations, if it is badly managed, then the end result can be a catastrophic mess. One only has to consider the debacle of the implementation of the Griffiths floor (Griffiths line 1983) in the NHS in the 80s to appreciate how a major charge change could be badly implemented. The Government even set up its own commission to see what lessons could be learned from the episode. (Davidmann 1988)If we consider the overall implications of the report in terms of change management, the innovations failed because they were imposed rather than managed. (Davidmann 1988) some other radical imagination in the field of change management is uttered by Marinker (1997) who poi nts to the rather subtle difference between compliance and concordance. He suggests that human beings generally respond better to suggestion, reason and coercion rather than direct imposition of arbitrary change.The management of change is perhaps the most critical of the elements in this discussion. There is little point in having visual modality or ideas if you cannot successfully implement them into reality (Bennis et al 1999).The whole account of the Management of Change is built upon a set of constructs known as the General Systems Theory (GST). (Newell et al 1992). The process is both general and variable and can be summarised in the phrase Unfreezing, Changing and Refreezing or in simple terms, assessing a situation changing it, and then making the changes stick. (Thompson 1992). totally changes, but particularly health and welfare related ones, should only genuinely be made after careful consideration of the demonstrate bottom underpinning that change (Berwick D 2005). In specific terms one should mensurate the need for implementation of a multidisciplinary discharge procedure by considering the evidence that the current situation could be improved, make managers aware of the findings of need and than be proactive in encouragement in terms of support of any decisions that are made to implement such moves.The Political contextIf one considers the pre-2000 structure and organisation of the NHS, one could come to the conclusion that there were three major problems which, some observers stated were not consistent with what was required of a 21st century care provider, namelya overleap of guinea pig standardsold-fashioned demarcations between staff and barriers between servicesa lack of clear incentives and levers to improve performanceover-centralisation and disempowered patients. (Nickols 2004)There have been a number of reforms in the NHS which potentially impinge on the cases of the dependent elderly. Arguably the most important was the NHS ju t (DOH 2000). This is a lengthy document which calls for some fundamental changes in the working practices, and in some cases the actual roles of a number of healthcare professionals.An analytical assessment would have to conclude that, although there is a lot of detail in some areas of the plan, there is actually relatively little detail in just how these changes should be actioned and arguably even less detail in what it expected the changes to be (Krogstad et al 2002). In the context of our discussion here, we should also note the natural ideological refilling to the NHS Plan, was the Agenda for Change (2004). The National Service Frameworks were then introduced after germinal guidance from the National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE 2004)The other reforms that have a bearing on our considerations are Choosing wellness making healthier choices easier (2004) and Building on the Best (2003). Both of these have considerable implications for the care of the elderly. The C hoosing health paper outlines the Government proposals for giving patients greater choice in the implementation of their health care and Building on the Best examines shipway of improving and modifying current practices. There are specific references to the discharge procedures which are relevant to our discussions here.The health contextIn the context of this essay the NHS Plan called for a number of reforms includingIncrease funding and reformAim to regaining geographical inequalities,Improve service standards,Extend patient choice.Each of these areas has a bearing our Mrs.J. The geographical inequalities were primarily due to the historical context in which each area had implemented their own services together with the remnant between funding and demand in each area. The improvement in service standards is mainly driven by the National Service Frameworks and he extension of patient choice clearly has a bearing on Mrs.J. although the choices available may well be less in app licative terms than the complete spectrum of what is actually available and may well be constrained by factors such as available funding and the patients own physical state. (Wierzbicki et al 2001)The National Service Frameworks (amongst other things) sets out to reduce inequalities in service provision between providers and also to set standards of excellence, together with goals and targets that are nationally based rather than neck of the woods based. (Rouse et al 2001).National Service Framework Standard Two has as its stated organise toEnsure that older people are interact as individuals and that they receive appropriate and timely packages of care which meet their inescapably as individuals, regardless of health and kind services boundaries.It is formulated at bottom the concept of Person Centred Care. This is intended to allow the elderly (and their carers) to receive entitled to be treated as individuals, and to allow them to be accountable for their own choices abou t their own care.The Social Care contextIf we tolerate that a patients discharge from hospital is dependent on many disparate and variable factors including (apart from their obvious health considerations), for example, their financial, dependence and support network status. It therefore follows that before a considered decision can be made to discharge the patient, a full and careful assessment of these dissimilar aspects should ideally be made. (Gould et al. 1995). The input of the social worker to the multidisciplinary pre-discharge team is therefore vital in this respect as it is unlikely that other healthcare professionals will be in a position to make an assessment of all of these factors.If one reads contemporary peer reviewed literature on the subject, the term seamless interface is a concept that frequently appears. (Dixon et al 2003). This reflects the moves towards the take down of the Empire concept of each health and welfare related subspecialty. (Lee et al 2004). An d the positive integration of each, for the overall benefit of the patient.Central to this process is the approach of the Single Assessment Process (SAP) which is arguably the most important new work practice to facilitate good multidisciplinary working practices. This reduces the duplication of work, origin of facts and paperwork that hitherto was commonplace (Fatchett A. 1998).In specific consideration of our Mrs.J. we could find that she was visited by one member of the discharge team (typically the social worker), and an assessment of all of the factors that we have discussed could be made and recorded in a one central document or reference point (computer). It is the stated aim of the SAP that the needs and wishes of the elderly patient will remain at the heart of the whole process. (Mannion R et al 2005)To consider the requirements of the National Service Frameworks and in the context of social work we should also mention the concept of the carers or patients Champion that h as been specifically encouraged. (Bartley M. 2004). These are designated workers (often specially trained or experienced social workers), who would stand up for the need of the patient or their carers. In Mrs.J.s case we could aim that such a champion could assess her needs as being more appropriately dealt with by an intensive course of both physiatrics and an occupational therapy input rather than necessarily being arbitrarily position in a residential home.The social worker is ideally laid to assess and indeed to action interventions such as that of the occupational therapist, who can be shown to produce considerable impact on the ability of the infirm elderly to remain at home. (Gilbertson et al 2000). We should not leave this area without a demonstration that the evidence base in this area of social worker input as being both positive and skillful by quoting the Logan paper (et al 1997)ReferencesAgenda for Change, 23 November 2004,Government White PaperHMSO 2004Bartley M. ( 2004),Health Inequality. An Introduction to Theories, Concepts and Methods.Cambridge University Press 2004Bennis, Benne Chin (Eds.) 1999,The preparation of Change (2nd Edition)..Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York 1999.Berwick D 2005 Broadening the view of evidence-based medicine Qual. Saf. Health Care, Oct 2005 14 315 316.Building on the best 2003,Department of HealthHMSO capital of the United Kingdom 09/12/2003Choosing Health making healthier choices easier 2004Government White Paper,HMSO capital of the United Kingdom 16.11.2004Davidmann 1988,Reorganising the National Health Service An Evaluation of the Griffiths Report,HMSO London 1988Dixon, Holland, and Mays 2003 Primary care core values Developing primary care gatekeeping, commissioning, and managed care BMJ, Jul 2003 317 cxxv 128.DOH 2000,NHS Plan,HMSO London 2000Fatchett A. (1998),Nursing in the new NHS Modern, Dependable.London Bailliere TindallGilbertson, tool Langhorne, Andrew Walker, Ann Allen, and Gordon D Murray 2 000 Domiciliary occupational therapy for patients with cerebrovascular accident discharged from hospital randomized controlled trial BMJ, Mar 2000 320 603 606 doi10.1136/bmj.320.7235.603Gould MM, Iliffe S. 1995,Hospital at home a case study in service development.Br J Health Care Manage 1995 1 809-812.Griffiths Report 1983NHS Management Inquiry Report DHSS, 1983 Oct 25Ham C. (2004),Health Policy in Britain 5th ed.Basingstoke Palgrave MacmillanKrogstad, Dag Hofoss, and Per Hjortdahl 2002 tenacity of hospital care beyond the question of personal contact BMJ, Jan 2002 324 36 38.Lee, Wong, Yeung Wong, and Tsang 2004 Interfacing between primary and secondary care is needed BMJ, Aug 2004 329 403.Logan PA, Gladman JRF, Lincoln NB. 1997,A randomised controlled trial of enhanced social service occupational therapy for stroke patients.Clin Rehab 1997 11 107-113Mannion R, Davies H, Marshall M (2005)Cultures for Performance in Health Care. hymen Open University PressMarinker M.1997,From c ompliance to concordance achieving shared goals,BMJ 19973147478.Newell Simon. 1992,Human line of work Solving.Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs 1992.NICE 2004,Management guidelines NHS DirectiveHMSO, Tuesday 7 December 2004Nickols F 2004,Change Management 101 A Primer,London Macmillian 2004Richards, Joanna Coast, David J Gunnell, Tim J Peters, tail end Pounsford, and Mary-Anne Darlow 1998 Randomised controlled trial comparing effectiveness and acceptability of an early discharge, hospital at home scheme with acute hospital care BMJ, Jun 1998 316 1796 1801Rouse, Jolley, and claim 2001 National service frameworks BMJ, Dec 2001 323 1429.Thompson 1992,Organisations in Action.McGraw-Hill, New York 1992.Whitely,S. et al (1996)Health and Social Care Management,Basingstoke Macmillan.Wierzbicki and Reynolds 2001 National service frameworks financial implications are capacious BMJ, Sep 2001 321 705.PDG
Factors that put on Enzyme ActivityVenessa DalyObjectivesTo determine the effect enzyme niggardliness has on catalase activityTo pick out the effect substratum meanness has on the rate of catalase activityTo relieve oneself the effect temperature has on the activity of catalaseIntroductionEnzymes control almost both cellular chemical reactions. Enzymes are large globular proteins that act as catalysts in biochemical reactions. A catalyst reduces the activation energy needed for a reaction to occur, thus affects the reaction rate. Enzymes are rattling sensitive, they are touch by temperature and pH. Enzymes work as catalysts by combining with a substratum at the active site to form the enzyme-substrate complex, this because(prenominal) breaks down to spare the enzyme and the product. Enzymes are lick specific, which means only substrate molecules with the corresponding shape will combine with the enzyme. This is known as the Lock and Key theory. So, because of this umtee n different enzymes fecal matter be present in a cell, acting at the same prison term but not affecting each(prenominal) other. Enzymes are recovered unchanged from reactions so they can be reused once more and again. Eventu onlyy, the effectiveness of the enzyme decreases over time and must be replaced. Enzyme activity can be measured by measuring the rate of formation of a product and measuring the rate of disappearance of a substance.Catalase is an enzyme found in almost all living organisms. It is a truly important enzyme as it prevents the build-up of toxic hydrogen bleach in cells. It catalyses the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen.2H2O2 2H2O + O2Enzymes are affected by enzyme parsimoniousness, substrate stringency and temperature. As enzyme concentration increases the rate of reaction also increases li near. However, once it reaches a very high enzyme concentration, the substrate concentration reaches a rate-limiting and the rate stops increasing . As the substrate concentration increases, the rate also increases. At higher concentrations, the enzymes drop dead saturated with substrate so there a very fewer free enzyme molecules. So, adding more substrate would make no departure. The enzyme activity increases as temperature increases until an optimum temperature is reached. Once the optimum temperature is reached, if the temperature is increased any more past there is a decline in enzyme activity. Enzymes become changed at a high temperature, the enzyme can then no longer control out its function correctly.MethodA fresh potato was natural and cut into wee cubes. ascorbic acidg of the tissue was weighed out. The potato, 100ml of cold distilled water and a small amount of crushed ice was placed into a pre-chilled blender. This was then homogenised for 30 seconds at high speed. The potato mixture was filtered. The filtrate was poured into a 100ml graduated cylinder. Cold distilled water was added to bring the volume to 100ml.100, 75, 50, 25, and 0 units/ml of enzyme concentrations were made up, (the total volume in each should be 40mls). 40ml of 1% H2O2 solution was placed into five different beakers. Forceps were used to fully use up a glass role disc into the first of the catalase solutions (100 units/ml). The disc intent the enzyme solution for 5 seconds, it was removed and allowed to run out for 10 seconds. The disc was then dropped into the first beaker of H2O2. The time was then put down from the moment the disc fey the surface to the moment it reached the surface again. This was make with two separate discs and the mean(a) time was got. This was then repeated for each of the enzyme solutions. The rate of reaction versus enzyme concentration was then plotted.40mls of 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.5%, 0.8%, 1%, 5% and 10% hydrogen peroxide solutions we added to 7 separate beakers. Forceps were used to fully immerse a glass fiber disc into 100 units/ml of the catalase solution. It was removed from the catalase after 5 seconds and allowed to drain for 10 seconds. The disc was then dropped into the 0.1% hydrogen peroxide solution. The time was recorded from the moment it touched the surface to the minute it reached the surface again. This was done doubly with two separate discs and the average time was got. This was done using all the substrate solutions. The rate of reaction versus substrate concentrations were plotted.Water baths were set up at the temperatures 0oC, 150C, 250C, 300C, 370C, 450C and 600C. 40mls of 1% hydrogen peroxide and 40mls of enzyme solution were incubated separately at each of the temperatures for 5 minutes. After the 5 minutes, a glass fibre disc was fully immersed into the enzyme solution for 5 seconds at 00C, using forceps. It was then removed and allowed to drain for 10 seconds before the disc was dropped into the beaker of the hydrogen peroxide. The time was recorded from the moment it touched the surface to the moment it reached the surface again. This was done twice using two separate discs each time at each temperature. The rate of reaction versus temperature was then plotted.ResultsConcentration while average out Time1/Time25%2222220.04545550%151414.50.06896675%141212.50.08100%10890.1111111ConcentrationTimeAverage Time1/Time0.1%4642440.0227270.2%322930.50.0327870.5%1816170.0588240.8%1412130.0769231%81090.111115%5340.2510%211.50.666667Temperature (0C)TimeAverage Time1/Time0161515.50.064516151311120.0825101110.50.095238301099.50.10526337586.50.1538464591511.50.08601491571530.006536Discussion The effect the change of enzyme concentration had on the reaction time of catalase activity can be observed from the graph and table (a). When the enzyme concentration was 25%, the rate of reaction was 22 seconds. However, when the enzyme was at 100% the reaction occurred within 9 seconds. This was a difference of 13 seconds and a concentration change of 75%. The reason there was such a difference in the rate of reaction was because th ere was more enzyme concentration than substrate so the enzymes could easily react.The change of concentration in the substrate had a huge effect on the rate of reaction of catalase, this can be observed from table and graph (b). The reaction time was 44 seconds when the substrate concentration was 0.1%. When that concentration was 10% the reaction time was a restless 1.5 seconds. This proves that as the concentration of substrate increase so does the rate of reaction. However, if the concentration was continued to be increased eventually there would be very little free enzymes left so the rate of reaction slows down.It is return from the table and graph (c) that enzymes optimum temperature is 37oC. The rate of reaction increases as the temperature increases up to 37oC, any temperature increase after that causes the rate of reaction to decrease. The enzymes begin to denature in any temperature higher than their optimum temperature.ConclusionsIt is very important to read what affe cts the rate of reaction in relation to enzymes in catalase activity. Enzymes control nearly all biological reactions, so this means it controls anything from digestion to tissue repair in the body. Enzymes are commonly prescribed to animals when a body process isnt surgery properly. So, it is essential to know what factors affect the productivity of enzymes to enable the correct treatment is given to the animal.ReferenceS. Marsden (2008) Enzymes. Online. Available at https//vcahospitals.com/know-your-pet/enzymes Accessed 18 February 2017.
Friday, March 29, 2019
Implementation Of The program subroutine subroutine library Management System Technology EssayThis brood focuses on the design and implementation of the depository subroutine subroutine library perplexity dust. It deals with the complete impactes on twist and implementing it. It focuses in the technical aspects of the synopsis starting with identifying the requisite voices and building the relevant coitus send off in the midst of or among them as needed for the cool and efficient operation of the ashes.The process starts with the entities involved in the dust, with proceeding towards the ER draw in order to identify the meaningful relation enter amongst the entities. Next is the delay design which fulfils the typicalisation principle of comparative database ashes and fin exclusivelyy the personal sidesteps argon peed with the necessary and relevant data in them.The system drive out keep track of the genus Ph in solelyuss joining and leaving the libra ry, espousal and returning of the admits. Checking the availability of the admits using contrasting attributes as parameters. Finally run intoing of the neglectful books and fines payable is former(a) feature of the system.AbbreviationSQL Structured Query quarrelER Entity RelationshipERD Entity Relationship DiagramDDL Data Definition wordingDML Data Manipulation Language1. Introduction library management system is a system that facilitates the easiness in using and tracking the library assets. It provides an instant real picture and process of all the activities that happens in a library commencing from the element joining the library and the uniform leaving the library with all the utilization and rendering of the library facilities in surrounded by.1.1 BackgroundA library is a collection resources especially books that a wide snip of individuals whoremaster recoer and sh ar them. Library has been in use since fifteenth century as has been g wiz through several stages of improvisation and its been in the form as today. Library can be categorized into different types jibe to the organization that leechs it as Academic library, public library, School library and so forth Further more than it can be classified according to the subject matter of the documents it acquires as Medical library, Law library, Arts Library etc. Libraries be organized in a way to annoy the materials in an easy an effective way. There argon several systems in practice which makes the library organized. Library is basically c at oncerned about acquisition, delivery and administration of its resources. In order to look at out these tasks a system is implemented. All these process has been carried out manually originally the advancement of spick-and-span technologies. Now the computer automated system is in practice to carry out these systems which makes all these processes effective and efficient. These computer automated systems makes easy for the fragments to acce ss the on hand(predicate) resources where as it makes easy for the bibliothecs to keep track and maintain the library resources.1.2 quarryiveThe objective of the entire projectDesign and implement a library database.Construct the expandable search alternatives for the best handling of share queries, searching the books by book title, book author, ISBN.Construct the search woof for the bibliothec to find the over due books and fine details.1.3 ScopeThe terminal of this project is to design a database for a college library which will be implemented in the form of an online library which provides segments a digitized catalog in order to search the books and browse information about the book. In the analogous condemnation this system excessively enables the bibliothecs to find the information of the book in a precise way especially the fine and overdue books. The summarized activities ar as followsMembers registrationBook issue and collectionBook cataloging accumulate overdu e book and fines1.4 Technology UsedTechnology apply in this project is MYSQL.2. Current system and its fallacyThe library is managed, organized and run by the librarian. All the functions like managing books, issuing books, and decision the books for the pieces is carried out by librarian. This is where the time and effort is consumed. Whereas the members also find difficulty in finding availability the books and need the assistance of librarian in every step. The librarian also finds it tedious if s/he has to deal with several members at a uniform time. There is a difficult system2.1 radical system and its featuresThe new system is also based on the day-by-day routines of the library but the function carried out within it will be automated. Once all the data are stored in a database with a proper system both the librarian and members will be benefited over the traditional system as it is designed with the undermenti hotshotd features in attendEffectiveThe library system wil l streamline the library process which accelerates the effectiveness of the library.EfficaciousThe users are served in a reasonable time and are also able to search and select their required books. in force(p)Members and bibliothecs are able to use the system quickly without any unyielding procedures.ElegantSince the system is intuitive and comprehensive and is designed to be as effortless as possible3. Literature ReviewThis report focuses on the abstract design of the system using ER i.e. entity relation ship plat which is a diagrammatic delegation of the entities and their relation with matchless another(prenominal) which is explained in the forth coming section. The ER is constructed using the UML. UML stands for unified framework quarrel. Software engineering uses UML as the standardized positioning language. It was created by Object management group. UML is a language used to present the blueprint of the system to be designed. It has got its own notations to represent t he processes and objects involved in the software to be designed.ER Diagram is a graphical representation of the entities and relation amongst them in order to execute a system. This Diagram is constructed in rough available ER Diagramming packages which is Visual paradigm community variate in this case.MYSQL has been elect as the database system for this library management system. Since it is relational database available under the terms of GNU public license. Besides the salve of using through a variety of freely available tools as PHPMYADMIN makes a choice of most of database designers today. Besides it is the database of choice because of its proud performance, high reliability and ease of use. Moreover it runs on maximum operating systems available in the IT fraternity like windows, Mac OS, Linux, Solaris, IBM .3.1 Requirement AnalysisThe library management system should be able to fulfill the user indispensablenesss to all the extent and when analyzed are found as follow sMember should be able to join and leave the libraryMember of a library should be able to borrow and return booksMember of the library should be able to check book availability.Librarian should be able to check the overdue book and the fines payable.4. New system DesignThe library management system with the goal to cover the requirements noted preceding(prenominal) needs to be developed in a system which has the proven track of implementing the same or same type of systems. So, a relational database system is chosen to carry out the task. The relational database system is basically a system where data is stored in a defyer called postp 1s and the relational among them is also stored in the same form. The new system follows the waterfall pretending of the software development mannikins. The processes in execution order in a water fall model areRequirement analysisSoftware DesignIntegration interrogatoryDeploymentMaintenance4.1 Conceptual Data ModelThe design of this data model i s part of software design phase. After going through the requirement analysis the next step is the Software design and in it conceptual data model is the first among them. The conceptual data model identifies the necessary entities and assurees a relevant relation among them. In this design ER Diagram (Entity human relationship diagram) is created to illustrate the relations between the entities. The diagrammatic conceptual representation of structured data is known as ER Diagram. Relational schema is used in this method for database modeling. The dominant method of database designing in the Software industry is the ER Diagram. Peter Chen invented the ER diagram in the early days to model the design of the databases from a more abstract perspective particularly for the academic research. Based on that, ER diagram was further elaborated and now is used worldwide in different forms. ER diagram deals with atomic number 53-third major comp onents of a database namely, Entity, Attrib utes and Relation.Entity is naught but a set of particular thing which shares common properties. Whereas attributes are the set of common properties which the entity share. The last but not the least component of an ER Diagram is a relation which is the model of association between one or more entities.Each relationship in ER Diagram has a cardinality which defines the degree of relationship between the two entities. In other words how the related entities has presence over one another. Cardinality is of three types one to one, one to umpteen an(prenominal) and umpteen to galore(postnominal). In an ER diagram the one occurrence of the entity is shown by a vertical line and some another(prenominal) occurrence of the entity is shown by the crow foot.The relationship is set up on the primer coat of several detects called radical(a) draws and contrasted blushers. Besides there are other get a line outs called candidate detect and conglomerate let out. radical keyThe attribute which unambiguously identifies a record in a set back is called master(a) quill key. abroad KeyAs the name specifies this is the key which blames the primary key of another panel to which it is related.Candidate KeyThe attribute that is identified to be unequaled for a given record is the candidate key.Composite KeyPrimary key consisting of more than one attributes to identify the record uniquely is mixed key.For the library system the constructed ER Diagram is shown at a lower place.4.2 Logical DesignThe luculent representation of the entities is drawn out in the logical design. It is a tabularise prototype of the entities.Based on the conceptual Design supra we do admit following dishearten and entities mapping.Membermember_id (integer),member_fname (varchar), member_lname (varchar), member_ distribute(integer), member_phone (varchar), member_email (varchar),member_type(integer)member_id is primary key and member_ court and member_type are foreign keys to b uild the one to some relationship between speech communication tabulate and member fudge and member table and member_type table respectively.Member_Typemember_type_id(integer), member_type_name (varchar), member_type_allowed_day (integer), member_type_fine (integer)member_type_id is primary key.Addressaddress_id(integer),address_description (varchar), zero (varchar)address_id is primary key. zilch nada_id (integer), slide fastener_description (varchar),postcode id is primary key.BooksISBN (integer),book_name (varchar),book_status (varchar),book_type_id (integer),book_publisher(integer)ISBNis primary key, book_type_id, book_publisher are the foreign keys which relates the the book table with book type with one to many another(prenominal) an(prenominal), and with publisher table in one to many relation ship as well.Book_Typebook_type_id(integer),book_type_name (varchar)book_type_idis primary key. publisherpublisher_id (integer),publisher_name (varchar)publisher_idis primary ke y.Authorauthor_id(integer),author_fname (varchar),author_lname (varchar),author_email (varchar)author_idis primary key.Librarianlibrarian_id(integer),librarian _fname (varchar),librarian _lname (varchar),librarian _address(integer),librarian_phone (varchar),librarian_email (varchar)librarian idis primary key, librarian_address is the foreign key which establishes the one to many relationship with address table.Book_AuthorISBN(integer),author_id(integer)ISBN is the foreign key which maintains one to many relation with books table and author_id is the foreign key which establishes the one to many relationship with author table. Thus in this way some to Many relationship is established between Book and Author table. sorbborrow_id(integer),member_id(integer),ISBN(integer),librarian_id(integer),borrow_date (date),return_date (date),expected_return_date (date)borrow_id is the primary key and memer_id, ISBN, librarian_id are the foreign keys. Member table and borrow table shares one to ma ny relationship, Books table and borrow table shares one to many relationship and librarian table also shares one to many relation with borrow table involving the mentioned foreign keys. In other words many to many relation ship occurs between these entities i.e. many to many between librarian and books, member and books.Finefine_id(integer),borrow_id(integer),librarian_id(integer),fine_amount (float),fine_id is the primary key and borrow_id, librarian_id are the foreign keys. Fine is associated with borrow in one to one relation whereas librarian is associated in one to many relation.4.3 standardizationAfter the conceptual model the logical representation of entities are created and indeed before converting them into the tables with physiologic population normalisation is carried out. practiceization is process by which the data redundancy is nullified. This is achieved by disintegrating the single relationship with ambiguity into multiple smaller and precise relations. The t ables attribute such data are split into several atomic tables so that they become isolated and the data manipulations are carried out in a propagative way i.e. a change in an entry point data in a relation makes it triggered and reflected throughout the relations which frees tables from accommodation anomalies, i.e. salt awayion, updation and deletion anomalies.Several levels of normalization exist in database design and are called Normal painss. They are First Normal Form (1NF), Second Normal Form (2NF) and Third Normal form (3NF).First Normal Form (1NF)First Normal form is concerned with multiple valued attributes. For the table to be in a first normal form it cannot contain multiple determine for any attributes.Second Normal Form (2NF)For the table to be in second normal form the non key attributes of the table shouldnt be partial subordinate on any single grammatical constituent of composite primary key.Third Normal Form (3NF)For the table to be in third normal form the non key attributes shouldnt have the transitive verb form dependency on the primary key.The tables for the different entities are normalized in following mannerBooks panel (without normalization)Fields (ISBN, book_name, book_status, book_edition, book_type, book_publisher, book_author) where ISBN is the primary key.books table before normalizationIn the above table the author value is repeated in the book_author table, for the table to be in 1NF, the table cell must contain a single value. The next is the value of book publisher and book type is repeated in multiple rows so it results in the update, insert and delete anomalies.To overcome this problem the author name and publisher entity are separated into multiple tables as shown below. The author table is created with author_id as primary key.Author TableFields (author_id, author_fname, author_lname, author_email) where author_id is the primary key.author_idauthor_fnameauthor_lnameauthor_email one hundred1MaxGodwellemailprotect ed coulomb2Robin toughemailprotectedThe relationship between book and author table is maintained in book_author table which is many to many as many a book has many authors and an author can write many books. This relation is established by creating a third table book_author which maps book to author and frailty versa. This table contains two fields both as foreign keys which disturb to book and author table respectively to establish one to many relationship on both sides.Book_Author Table ISBNauthor_id912387456541912387456542Publisher TableFields (publisher_id, publisher_name) publisher_id is the primary key. likewise the repeating of publisher values in a book table is rectified by creating a publisher table as publisher_id as primary key which is then mapped as foreign key in books table to create one to many relationship, which rectifies the insert, update and delete anomaly thus creates 1NF in all cases.publisher_idpublisher_name1Apress2PrincetonBook_Type TableFields (book_ type_id, book_type_name) book_type_id is the primary key. Similarly the repetition of book type values in a book table is rectified by creating a book_type table with book_type_id as primary key which is then mapped as foreign key in books table to create one to many relationship, which rectifies the insert, update and delete anomaly thus creates 1NF in all cases.Book_type_idBook_type_name1Computing2EconomicsThe second normal form deals with the dependency of the non key columns with the primary key, i.e. no non key columns can depend upon another non key columns or no non key columns can depends on any one column in case of composite primary key. The conclusion is all the non key columns must be dependant on primary key strictly. Since this is also satisfied in all the tables above all the tables satifies 2NF as well.The third Normal form deals with transitive dependency of non key columns, since this is abolished in all the tables above all the tables are in 3NF as well.Books Tab le (Normalized)Fields (ISBN, book_name, book_status, book_edition, book_type, book_publisher)ISBN is the primary key, book_type is the foreign key referring to book_type table and book_publisher is the foreign key referring to the publisher table.Books table after normalizationMember TableFields (member_id, member_fname, member_lname, member_phone, member_email, member_address, member_postcode, member_type, member_allowed_day, member_type_fine) member_id is the primary key.Member table before normalizationThe table above contains repeated address, repeated postcode, repeated member type, repeated member_type_allowed day and member_type_fine so this should be resolved to convert the tables in 1NF.Since there is no composite primary key there is no partial dependency as such so once the above table is resolved to 1NF it becomes 2NF as well.Since member_type_allowed_day, member_type_fine is dependent on member_type alone which is dependent in member_id it creates transitive dependency. So the table to be in 3NF this anomaly should be removed.Again to overcome these anomalies the tables are separated and the relation between them are established accordingly.The member, address, postcode and member_type tables are separated as below to convert into 3NF.To avoid the repetition of member type in member table the member type is separated in member_type table with member_type_id as primary key and member_type as foreign key in member table which creates one to many relation between these two tables. This also rectifies the transitive dependency existing on the member table at one time and thus resolves the table to 3NF.Member_TypeFields (member_type_id, member_type_name, member_type_allowed_day, member_type_fine) member_type_id is the primary key.member_type_idmember_type_namemember_type_allowed_daymember_type_fine1Student14102Lecturer305The dependency of address in postcode also creates the violation of 2NF through the dependency of non key attribute in another non k ey attribute other than primary key so this is further resolved by splitting address and postcode table separately.The address table has address_id as primary key which is referred in member table as foreign key which establishes one to many relation between them. At the same moment the postcode table is created with postcode_id as primary key and is referred in address table as foreign key named postcode also creates one to many relation between postcode and address. Thus the 2NF violation in member table is abolished and further more all the resulting table satisfies all the Normal form conditions.Address TableFields (address_id, address_description, postcode) address_id is the primary key and postcode is the foreign key referring postcode_id in the postcode table which creates one to many relation between address and postcode table.Address_idaddress_descriptionpostcode1121 einsteinium Road1245 Parr Road2336 Jhon Road3423 Plashet Road1Postcode TableFields (postcode_id, postcode_d escription) postcode_id is the primary key.postcode_idpostcode_description1E15 3QS2NW9 1NF3SE1 2NXMember Table (Normalized)Fields (member_id, member_fname, member_lname, member_phone, member_email, member_type, member_address) member_id is the primary key member_type is the foreign key referring to member_type_id in member table to create one to many relations between these two table. member_address is the foreign key referring to address_id of Address table to establish another one to many relation.As in case of librarian the repeating fields in a table address and which caused the insert, update and delete anomalies so violated 1NF and this is resolved by creating the Librarian table with the foreign key mapped to address table thus maintaining one to many relationship and thus abolishes any Normalization violations and thus results in merriment to all the Normal forms.Library Table (without normalization) Fields ( librarian_id, librarian_fname, librarian_lname, librarian_phone, librarian_email, librarian_address, librarian_postcode) librarian_id is the primary key.Library Table (normalized)Fields (librarian_id, librarian_fname, librarian_lname, librarian_email) librarian_id is the primary key and librarian_address is the foreign key which refers to address_id in the Address table to create one to many relationship.Borrow Table (without normalization) Fields (borrow_id, member_id, ISBN, issuing_librarian, borrow_date, return_date, expected_return_date, returning_librarian, fine_amount) borrow_id is the primary key.Borrow table before normalizationThe above table violates the 1NF by repeating the librarian ids at the same once it is resolved all other normal forms conditions are satisfied. The borrow table is divided into one more table as Fine and the librarian is associated to Borrow and Fine table separately through one to many relationships in both cases. This eradicates the violation of normal forms and thus makes the form normalized up to 3NF.Fine tabl eFields (fine_id, borrow_id, librarian_id,fine_amount) fine_id is the primary key and borrow_id is the indexed foreign key which is mapped to the borrow_id of the borrow table, so as to create one to one relationship between them. The relation ship is created one to one as one borrow can only have one fine and not more than once.fine_idborrow_idlibrarian_idfine_amount1110011022100215Borrow table (Normalized)Fields (borrow_id, member_id, ISBN, librarian_id, borrow_date, return_date, expected_return_date) borrow_id is the primary key. member_id is the foreign key which referrs to the member_id of the member table thus creating one to many relationship in between. Similarly ISBN is the foreign key that refers to the ISBN in the book table thus creating one to many relation between them. Similarly librarian_id is the foreign key that is mapped with librarian_id of the librarian table to create one to many relationship again.Borrow table after normalization4.4 Physical DesignThe physical design refers to the basis of the physical tables in the preferred database management system. In database management system there are the specific SQL called Data definition languages (DDL) to create the physical table and establish the relationship between the tables. They are lay down, depart, And DROP. frame avouchment is used to create the physical structure of the table. ALTER narrative is used to specify the existing structure of a table as adding and removing columns, constraints etc. DROP statement is used to delete a table.For instance we have to create the tables as per the requirement. Here are the DDL statements to create the tables as illustrated in the ER diagramCREATE circuit card Books (ISBN INT not nix ,book_name VARCHAR( 100 ) non zero ,book_status CHAR( 1 ) non aught ,book_type INT non vapid,book_edition INT non deceitful ,book_publisher INT non NULL , elementary find out ( ISBN ))CREATE hedge Book_Type (book_type_id INT NOT NULL ,book_type_n ame VARCHAR( 50 ) NOT NULLPRIMARY winder ( book_type_id ))CREATE plank Author (author_id INT NOT NULL,author_fname VARCHAR ( 50) NOT NULL ,author_fname VARCHAR ( 50) NOT NULL ,author_email VARCHAR ( 100) NOT NULL)CREATE remit Publisher (publisher_id INT NOT NULL,publisher_name VARCHAR (100) NOT NULL,PRIMARY discern ( publisher_id ))CREATE TABLE Book_Author (book_id INT NOT NULL ,author_id INT NOT NULL)CREATE TABLE Member (member_id INT NOT NULL ,member_fname VARCHAR( 50 ) NOT NULL ,member_lname VARCHAR( 50 ) NOT NULL,member_phone VARCHAR( 25 ) NOT NULL ,member_email VARCHAR( 100 ) NOT NULL ,member_email VARCHAR( 100 ) NOT NULL ,member_type INT NOT NULL ,member_address INT NOT NULL ,PRIMARY KEY (member_id ))CREATE TABLE Member_Type (member_type_id INT NOT NULL ,member_type_name VARCHAR( 50 ) NOT NULL ,member_type_allowed_day INT NOT NULL ,member_type_fine INT NOT NULL ,PRIMARY KEY (member_type_id))CREATE TABLE Address (address_id INT NOT NULL ,address_desc TEXT NOT NULL ,postcode INT NOT NULL ,PRIMARY KEY (address_id ))CREATE TABLE Postcode (postcode_id INT NOT NULL,postcode_description VARCHAR( 10 ) NOT NULL ,PRIMARY KEY (postcode_id ))CREATE TABLE Librarian (librarian_id INT NOT NULL ,librarian_fname VARCHAR( 50 ) NOT NULL ,librarian_lname VARCHAR( 50 ) NOT NULL ,librarian_address INT NOT NULL ,librarian_phone VARCHAR( 25 ) ,librarian_email VARCHAR( 100 ) ,PRIMARY KEY ( librarian_id ))CREATE TABLE Borrow (borrow_id INT NOT NULL ,member_id INT NOT NULL ,ISBN INT NOT NULL ,librarian_id INT NOT NULL ,borrow_date fitting NOT NULL ,return_date DATE ,expected_return_date DATE NOT NULL ,PRIMARY KEY (borrow_id ))CREATE TABLE Fine (fine_id INT NOT NULL ,borrow_id INT NOT NULL ,librarian_id INT NOT NULL ,fine_amount FLOAT NOT NULLfine_paid CHAR( 1 ) NULL ,PRIMARY KEY ( fine_id ),INDEX (borrow_id))Once the table physical structures are created then the relation among them are established as per the ER diagram and normalization.Below are the DDL statements used to c reate the foreign keys so as to create the relationship between the tables as illustrated in ER diagram.ALTER TABLE Books channel unusual KEY (book_type) REFERENCES Book_Type (book_type_id) ALTER TABLE Books ADD distant KEY ( book_publisher ) REFERENCES Publisher( publisher_id ) ALTER TABLE Book_Author ADD outside KEY ( ISBN ) REFERENCES books( ISBN ) ALTER TABLE Book _ Author ADD FOREIGN KEY ( author_id ) REFERENCES Author( author_id ) ALTER TABLE Member ADD FOREIGN KEY ( member_address ) REFERENCES Address( address_id ) ALTER TABLE Member ADD FOREIGN KEY ( member_type) REFERENCES Member_Type( member_type_id ) ALTER TABLE Librarian ADD FOREIGN KEY ( librarian_address ) REFERENCES Address( address_id ) ALTER TABLE Borrow ADD FOREIGN KEY ( member_id ) REFERENCES Member( member_id ) ALTER TABLE Borrow ADD FOREIGN KEY ( ISBN ) REFERENCES books(ISBN) ALTER TABLE Borrow ADD FOREIGN KEY ( librarian_id) REFERENCES Librarian( librarian_id )ALTER TABLE fine ADD FOREIGN KEY ( borrow_id) R EFERENCES Borrow( borrow_id )ALTER TABLE fine ADD FOREIGN KEY ( librarian_id ) REFERENCES Librarian( librarian_id )ALTER TABLE address ADD FOREIGN KEY ( postcode ) REFERENCES Postcode( postcode_id)5 Data Manipulation languageData manipulation language DML is SQL is the statement which used to insert, update, delete and retrieve the data from the table or multiple tables as per requirement. The wrap statement is used to insert a record in a table. UPDATE statement is used to modify the value of the attribute in a record and DELETE statement is used to delete a record from the table.5.1 DML to insert dummy recordsINSERT INTO Postcode (postcode_id ,postcode_description)VALUES (2, NW9 E5J)INSERT INTO Address (address_id ,address_desc ,po
Thursday, March 28, 2019
<a href="http//www.geocities.com/vaksam/">Sam Vaknins Psychology, Philosophy, economics and Foreign Affairs Web SitesOccasionalism is a variation upon Cartesian metaphysics. The last mentioned is the most notorious case of dualism (mind and body, for instance). The mind is a mental nerve. The body a material substance. What permits the complex fundamental moveions which happen between these two disparate substances? The unextended mind and the extended body for certain cannot interact without a mediating agency, matinee idol. The appearance is that of direct interaction but this is an legerdemain maintained by Him. He moves the body when the mind is willing and places ideas in the mind when the body comes across other bodies. Descartes postulated that the mind is an active, unextended, thought plot the body is a passive, unthinking extension. The First nucleus and the Second Substance combine to form the Third Substance, Man. God the Fourth, uncreated Substanc e facilitates the direct interaction among the two within the third. Foucher raised the question how can God a mental substance interact with a material substance, the body. The answer offered was that God created the body (probably so that He will be able to interact with it). Leibnitz carried this further his Monads, the units of reality, do not re in ally react and interact. They just come out to be doing so because God created them with a pre-established harmony. The constant divine intermediation was, thus, reduced to a one-time act of creation. This was considered to be both a crystalline result of occasionalism and its refutation by a reductio ad absurdum argument. But, was the stern substance necessary at all? Could not an explanation to all the known facts be provided without it? The ratio between the outlet of known facts (the outcomes of observations) and the number of theory elements and entities employed in order to explain them is the parsimony ratio. all newl y discovered fact either reinforces the existing worldview or forces the first appearance of a new one, through a crisis or a variety (a paradigm shift in Kuhns abandoned phrase). The new worldview read not necessarily be more parsimonious. It could be that a hit new fact precipitates the introduction of a dozen new theoretical entities, axioms and functions (curves between data points). The very delineation of the field of study serves to nail down the number of facts, which could exercise such an influence upon the existing worldview and still be considered pertinent.
Both The meter of the Cid and The Song of Roland were written in a time period where extensive new developments were occurring in Europe, but no(prenominal) more crucial than the beginning of the Crusades and the ethnocentric viewpoint they propagated and were propagated by (Quinn). Of great interest is the manner in which both works deal with the constitution of pluralism in European history. For the sake of this essay, pluralism will be defined patently as a state of more than one. Both works, written at approximately the same time (1130-1170 for The Song of Roland and approximately 1207 for The Poem of the Cid, as per the books forewords) have astonishing similarities and stark contrasts, which when put in context atomic number 18 incredibly revealing of their respective authors/cultures attitudes about economic, cultural, and religious pluralism.An often overlooked place to begin evaluating these stories lies in their depictions of economic system of ruless(prenominal). Th e Song of Roland depicts a system that is primarily based on the giving of tribute, namely exotic gifts and assess clearly shown when Blancandrin counsels Marsilla to achieve peace with Charlemagne by promising him bears and lions and dogs, 700 hundred camels and a thousand moulted hawks (Burgess, page 30). However, it is important to note that the concept of paying with specie is not entirely absent from the novel, you will have enough atomic number 79 bezants to pay your mercenaries well (Burgess, page 33). In The Song of Roland we see our offset evidence of a plural economy. The dominant system is the giving of abounding gifts in the form of tribute to ones betters or equals like Marsile to Charlemagne which is followed by the less important/common payment of money to ones inferiors a la Charlemagne to his mercen... ...rfully with The Poem of the Cid and its multi-cultural and relatively accepting Spanish ideal of convivencia (Kahf) that embraced diversity in its some form s. While both works contain strong similarities due to the law of proximity of their geographic and temporal origins and the struggles that were occurring there, namely the Crusades subtle nuances and seemingly minor differences amongst the two works reveal two very different views on pluralism. BibliographyBurgess, Glyn S.The Song of Roland. London, England Penguin, 1990. Print. Hamilton, Rita, Janet H. Perry, and Ian Michael.The Poem of the Cid. Harmondsworth Penguin, 1984. Print. Quinn, William. The Crusades 1&2. 8 and 13 March 2012. Lecture. Quinn, William. Cantar del mio Cid Campeador. 3 April 2012. LectureKahf, Medieval Spain, Competing Narratives. 27 March 2012. Lecture
Wednesday, March 27, 2019
Medea Medea is a classic tragedy which was written in 431 BC by the Greek philosopher Euripides. The story of Medea is one filled with anger, jealousy, and death. The principal(prenominal) character, Medea, has to overcome the personal heartache of see her husband, Jason, marry another womanhood. The ensue struggle she has with this notion is the heighten of this play.In a very grand scene, Medea hatches her plan to murder the princess, who is Jasons new bride, as sound as Jason himself. She says that first, she will pretend to beg for Jasons forgiveness, and then she will require him bring the children back to the palace. At the palace, the children will present gifts to the princess from Medea. The gifts of a kill and bridal robe were cover with a poison that is designed to warming the skin from her embody, as well as anyone who touched her. When the children give the gifts to the princess, she cannot urge on putting them on immediately. afterward she put them on, t he gifts begin to work as Medea had hoped. The skin begins to melt from her body and her hair begins to fall out. She also bursts into flames. Upon seeing this, a servant goes to cause the king and Jason, and when he saw his daughter, world power Creon collapses helplessly on the body, and as a result died from the same poisons. Jason returns to the score where Medea is staying and insists to see his children. But he is too late, as Medea has killed them as well. Her debate was that she hates Jason more than she loves her children. The sheer roughness of this scene illustrates Euripides point that a intellectual woman with enough date to hatch a plan is a very dangerous woman indeed.Medea essays research papers Medea Medea is a Greek tragedy which was written in 431 BC by the Greek philosopher Euripides. The story of Medea is one filled with anger, jealousy, and death. The main character, Medea, has to overcome the personal heartache of seeing her husband, Jason, marry ano ther woman. The ensuing struggle she has with this notion is the focus of this play.In a very important scene, Medea hatches her plan to murder the princess, who is Jasons new bride, as well as Jason himself. She says that first, she will pretend to beg for Jasons forgiveness, and then she will have him bring the children back to the palace. At the palace, the children will present gifts to the princess from Medea. The gifts of a veil and bridal robe were covered with a poison that is designed to melt the skin from her body, as well as anyone who touched her. When the children give the gifts to the princess, she cannot resist putting them on immediately. After she put them on, the gifts begin to work as Medea had hoped. The skin begins to melt from her body and her hair begins to fall out. She also bursts into flames. Upon seeing this, a servant goes to fetch the king and Jason, and when he saw his daughter, King Creon collapses helplessly on the body, and as a result died from the same poisons. Jason returns to the place where Medea is staying and insists to see his children. But he is too late, as Medea has killed them as well. Her reasoning was that she hates Jason more than she loves her children. The sheer cruelty of this scene illustrates Euripides point that a clever woman with enough time to hatch a plan is a very dangerous woman indeed.
Many writers sustain experiences and thoughts into their work and express them in such a way the proofreader can relate. Critics would agree Edgar Allan Poe left a unique lollipop as a small story writer. Author Ray Bradbury was quoted saying, It doesnt matter what you do, so long as you change something from the way it was before you touched it into something thats resembling you after you take your hands away (Bradbury). Fiction writing was unanalyzable until Poe begins to put his twist around the world. During the terrible times that Edgar Allan Poe experienced as a young art object would ultimately alter the history of short stories, he was unique and an extraordinary writer therefore exemplifying the mark that he leave upon society in his short stories Hop-frog. In Poes early life, he goes through a devastating and tragic import as his mother dies and his biological father abandons him at the geezerhood of 2 leaving him as an orphan. Writer W.D. Johnson says, Increase d susceptibility to depression and anxiousness is another result of the heightened stress levels associated with being an orphan. Typically, the younger the age of a child when orphaned and the longer he remains without a home, the more drastic the impact that his experiences as an orphan will have on his development (Johnson). Poes adolescence seemed to be on a path ordain for self-destruction following the Allans informal adoption of him at the age of two. Francis and John Allan, his foster parents, forced him to move away from his siblings in capital of Massachusetts to their home in Richmond, Virginia. From a young age, Poe lacked the stability of a rich environment for a boy to grow and mature into a man acceptable to societys standards. Poe and his foster family moved to England in sake of... ... Mark. Edgar Allan Poe. Edgar Allan Poe. Web. 07 whitethorn 2012. .Edgar Allan Poe. Goodreads. Web. 07 May 2012. .Farlex. Tuberculosis. The Free Dictionary. Farlex. Web. 07 May 2 012. .Poes Life. Edgar Allan Poe Museum Poes Life, Legacy, and Works Richmond, Virginia. Poe Museum, 1922. Web. 07 May 2012. .Soon, Willie and Steven Yaskell. social class Without a Summer. Year Without a Summer. World Scientific Publishing Company, July 2001. Web. 07 May 2012. .Year Without a Summer. Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 05 June 2012. Web. 07 May 2012. .
Tuesday, March 26, 2019
Sir William Blake was known for his manifest writings and childlike imagination when it came down to his writings. Some will produce that his writings were like day and night for example, The Lamb and The Tiger or The Little Boy Lost and The Little Boy Found. Born in the 18thcentury, Blake witnessed the cruel acts of the French and American Revolutions so his writings also, revealed and undetermined the harsh realities of biography (Biography William Blake). Although he never gained fame during his lifetime, Blakes work is image of as to be genius and well respected today. The lack of public cognizance sent him into a severe depression which lasted from 1810-1817, and even his close friends suasion him insane (William Blake,). Blake once stated, Always be ready to speak your mind, and a base man will avoid you (http//brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/w/william_blake.html).Blake was educated at home by his mother, whom he was very fond of. his song place of birth Song was about his memories of his upbringing.Sweet dreams, form a shadeOer my lovely babes headSweet dreams of harming streamsBy happy, silent, moony beams.Sweet sleep, with soft downWeave thy brows an infant crown.Sweep sleep, Angel mild,Hover oer my happy child.This verse was in his collection entitled,Songs of Innocence. today his most popular volume, he revealed glimpses of life as it appears to innocent childhood, full of charm and joy, and trust(William Blake Dark 77 or 79 blu). This is what Blake adapted as his style his poems were simple, direct, and clear complete for a child to understand. One of Blakes other more popular poems is, The Lamb. This poem like many others is written in his idiosyncratic view of Christianity, th... ...poetic thought that they express (Frye, 23).Works CitedBernbaum, EarnestAnthology of romanticistism and Guide Through the amativeMovementVol 1. New York Thomas Nelson and Sons, 1938.Biography William Blake. . 9 Nov 2008.Bloom, Harold, ed.English Romantic Poets. . New York New Haven PhiladelphiaChelsea House Publishers, 1986.http//brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/w/william_blake.html. 9 Nov 2008.Frye, Northrop. Blake aft(prenominal) Two Centuries.English Romantic Poets Modern Essaysin Criticism. Ed. M.H. Abrams. New York capital of the United Kingdom Oxford Oxford University Press, 1960. P 67.. 9 Nov 2008William Blake.. . 9 Nov 2008.